March 21, 2016

(Dan) Hey folks, welcome to DocTalk. Thanks for joining me. I’m Dan Thomson from Kansas State University and today my guest is going to be Dr. Chris Blevins, who is an Associate Clinical Professor and head of Equine Field Services here at Kansas State University. We’re going to talk about vaccine recommendations for horses for 2016. It’s going to be great. Come back after these messages.

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(Dan) Welcome to the show. (Chris) Thank you. (Dan) Folks, this is Dr. Chris Blevins. He is the Associate Clinical Professor and head of the Equine Field Services here at Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center. Good friend, good colleague. And I’m, excited to have him on the show cause we kind of do this update, try to do it whether it’s annual or every two years. And we haven’t done it for two years. But really we’re going to do an update on equine vaccination recommendations for 2016. (Chris) Sounds good. (Dan) And so kind of talk about where these come from and there’s lists from professional organizations right? (Chris) Right. So, the AAEP, which is the American Association of Equine Practitioners, it’s kind of the equine or horse board for veterinarians and recommendations and what they come up with specialists and research, what we should do for vaccinating our horse and when we should do it. So, that list comes through the AAEP. (Dan) OK. So, then they come out with two different groups of vaccines right? (Chris) Yep. (Dan) And one’s kind of…you make sure you give this to everything and the others are based on experience or geography pandemic, epidemics, veterinary experiences? (Chris) Right, right. And so the core vaccines are which every horse should get, no matter if they’re even exposed to another horse. And that’s probably a big thing to remember cause I’ll go to a farm and some people will be like, I don’t see other horses, so why do we need to vaccinate? Well, you don’t need exposure to other horses for the core vaccine. And they would be including West Nile, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, so that’s the three of them there, Tetanus and Rabies. And so those are considered, every horse no matter where they’re located, should get those core vaccines. (Dan) Because they don’t have to be exposed to a horse they can be exposed to wildlife, or to a vector of like a mosquito or something that might be transmitting the disease, carrying it from section to section. (Chris) That’s right, yea. So it’s just based on environment, right. And so you can’t prevent a horse from being out in the environment, and so that’s why they get those vaccines. (Dan) Right. So then what are the other types of vaccines? (Chris) It can range a lot. Probably the big ones are Influenza and Herpes which is called the Rhino type vaccine. So, those ones are ones based on risk, exposure to other horses, going to shows, whether they get those vaccines. There’s Equine Viral Arteritis, Strangles vaccine for horses is another one that some of them will go ahead and use. Potomac Horse Fever, that depends on geographic locations. Botulism for foals. We’ll vaccinate those mares. But again, geographic location. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis. Not necessarily in the upper United States, but you get closer to Central America and so a lot of Texas and those places, locations will put the “V” in with the rest of the vaccines. (Dan) So, the cores the veterinarian will come out, obviously on the Rabies, the veterinarian is going to be taking care of that and being on the farm and maintaining records then. But how do you go away deciding when you move away from core into some of the risk based? (Chris) And adding that to the core, it’s one of those things where it’s all dependent on discussion with the veterinarian, they need to decide what they’re doing with the animal, the age of the animal, the breed, if it’s pregnant, cause they are risks in some of those vaccines in giving them too. (Dan) Gotcha. Well, let’s take a break. When we come back, we’re going to go into some of the when, why, how that we give some of these vaccines with Dr. Chris Blevins. Here from Kansas State University, you’re watching DocTalk. More after these messages.

(Dan) Hey folks, welcome back to DocTalk, Dr. Dan Thomson here with Dr. Chris Blevins. We’re at Kansas State University where Dr. Blevins is an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Clinical Sciences and he works to head up our Equine Field Services. And so, he’s seen a lot of horses doing a lot of this vaccination… (Chris) Yea. (Dan) …teaching this to students and so, one thing when we left, not all vaccines are safe all the time. And there can be some negative impact of those. Let’s go into some of the negative associate effects of vaccines. (Chris) I think that lots of people they need to consult with their veterinarian and not just grab vaccine, just because they’re available. Because some of those vaccines are a risk of even giving then. And one of them for example would be a Strangles vaccine which is a bacteria. It’s a modified live, we squirt it in the nose. Well if you put a bacteria in the muscle, you can cause an abscess whether directly or indirectly. How and how you give that vaccine is very important. The other thing is they could react to the vaccine and get really sick. And so they’re not necessarily that we’re based on your location and if there’s a risk of getting the disease, but also the risk of the actual vaccine itself. The other thing is what if the mare is pregnant? We have to be careful on what vaccine those mare’s get because it could cause an abortion based on the vaccine itself. So anything modified live in the horse, we have to be very careful and don’t give those to pregnant mares because that’s a risk also. (Dan) You bet. And you mentioned that Strangles, I can remember the location of where we would give it, because of the potential abscess formation of some of those vaccines so that we wouldn’t hinder the horses ability to move. (Chris) Yea. (Dan) When you start to think about this, and making sure you work with a veterinarian is vitally important. (Chris) Yea, cause that Strangles vaccine there could be that bacterial extract, we give IM and then there’s new one, or the newer one that you give in the nose, which is the actual bacteria, the weak one, so you have to be careful not to give that one IM. So, there’s that confusion too, you have to make sure you deal with your veterinarian. (Dan) Absolutely, absolutely. So, let’s start out with…let’s just run through some different scenarios. So I have a foal, OK, when am I going to vaccinate the foal and what’s your protocol? (Chris) I think the biggest thing to remember is that foal when it’s first born gets all it’s immunity from its Mom and the colostrum or the first milk. And so I think that’s something they need to keep in mind. So, making sure that mare is vaccinated 30 days prior to foaling, and then it gets in the colostrum. After that four to six months is usually when we start vaccinating those foals. And booster those vaccines in one month. And that’s something else that some owners forget. They give the first vaccine, but they don’t booster in 30 days. (Dan) So we make sure we get the mares 30 days prior to parturition, that will give you the past immunity and get you out there four to six months. And then we’re gonna give our first vaccines then and then booster in a month. (Chris) That is exactly right. (Dan) That’s awesome. It just simplifies things for people when you’re thinking of the mare and what if they forget to vaccinate the mare? (Chris) If they forget to vaccinate the mare and if she has ever been vaccinated before it got in the colostrum, then we might start a little earlier on the foal, as far as vaccinating them. So it could even start out at two months or a month of age, depending on their risk and what they’re getting exposed to, those kind of things, but again, because their immunity is starting to mature, we’re going to have to keep boostering until they get about four to six months of age before you’d stop boostering them. You start early. (Dan) Cool. I learned so much from different species when they start doing some of this in beef. Anyway, folks, we’re going to take a break. We’re up against our time slot here. More with Dr. Blevins on equine vaccinations for 2016 after these messages.

(Dan) Folks, welcome back to DocTalk. Dr. Dan Thomson here with Dr. Chris Blevins, who’s one of our specialists here at Kansas State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine when it comes to equine veterinary medicine and equine practice. He’s an Assistant Associate Clinical Professor here in the Veterinary Health Center. And just a tremendous resource of information for us as veterinarians and a great teacher to our students and providing service to clients around the greater Manhattan area. But when we’re talking about vaccines we’ve covered some of the foals, let’s get into the broodmare. (Chris) Yea. I think the biggest thing to always remember about the mare is that there’s multiple things that’s happening with her immune system and what we need to protect them for. The broodmare or the mare prior to getting pregnant, we need to protect them from certain diseases. There’s some viruses that can even be in the semen from that stallion, cooled or frozen. So if that’s the case, we need to make sure she gets vaccinated for that. It’s called Equine Viral Arteritis. So, it’s one of those viruses we use prior to breeding. And then the other thing is making sure that we don’t have anything that’s going to cause an abortion. So, staying away from all those modified lives. We just don’t have any of those for the mare when she’s pregnant. (Dan) That are safe? (Chris) Yea. So making sure that it’s safe for her during that aspect. (Dan) So modified lives in pregnant mares. (Chris) Correct, correct. We just don’t have that right now. Maybe later on there will be some research and we’ll have one that might be safe, but we do not have one for the mare. (Dan) Great. So, then when we come up there, that 30 days prior to the parturition, or prior to giving birth, what do you recommend? (Chris) The biggest recommendation is all the core vaccines that are all killed, and to do those 30 days prior to foaling. You could though they’ve found, give the Rabies vaccine prior to even breeding those. The immune response is still good to get in the colostrum in the 11 months and still be fine. But yea, the core vaccines. So the Eastern, Western West Nile, Tetanus, Rabies, and then if the other potential risk you could always add other ones like Influenza, Herpes vaccine, Strangles vaccines. Depends on again, the aspects of risk of the other ones. (Dan) And that’s the flu Rhino, right? (Chris) Yep. (Dan) OK, so let’s go…I think there’s some of these other horses, let’s take the ones that are not bred. We may not get through all this before the break, but the geldings and your work horses, when are you vaccinating those? (Chris) That’s a good point and it just reminded me, even on that broodmare, at five, seven, and nine months gestation, there’s a Rhino vaccine or the Herpes vaccine we give ’em so they don’t abort too. (Dan) Gotcha. (Chris) I just remembered on that one too. The rest of them it’s the core vaccines, and then going to show where you’re going to shows and what we need to protect them from. So the Rhino flu is actually one of those that we do use a lot. But then also maybe they’re going to a region where Potomac Horse Fever is something that they’re worried about, so we’ll add that. Maybe a Venezuelan, down south, so depending on where they’re at and where they’re going. (Dan) Core vaccines given once a year? (Chris) Core vaccines given once a year. If you live in the southern United States, sometimes they have to booster those core vaccines also in the Fall. Most vaccines are part of the mosquito season in the Spring. But if you have a mosquito season that’s pretty long, got to booster also in the Fall. (Dan) Cool. Folks, we’re gonna come back with our wrap up section on vaccines for equines with Dr. Chris Blevins. Thanks for watching DocTalk today. We’ll be back after these messages.

(Dan) Folks, welcome back to DocTalk. Dr. Dan Thomson here with Dr. Chris Blevins who is an Associate Clinical Professor and head of our Equine Field Services here at the Veterinary Health Center in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University. He’s a friend, he’s a colleague, great teacher and great practitioner. Glad to be able to go to work every day with him. We’re talking about vaccines in equines and we got through all the different…but let’s go back and kind of the show horses. Cause how do I find out? Do I get ahold of my veterinarian? If I’m going to go to Denver, or up to Minnesota or somewhere, how do I find out what would be recommended? (Chris) First of all, I think you should start with your veterinarian and figure out that discussion, where you’re going, location, cause they’ll give you great information on that too. The other thing is, some of the shows are actually requiring certain vaccines and so that may be falling more on that owner to make sure they go to the list based on the show. And so, what are the requirements for that show? Making sure they have everything properly documented. The veterinarian can also help with that too, what vaccine was given, when it was given, sometimes they want to know the information of serial number and expiration of that vaccine for those shows too. (Dan) Wow. (Chris) So they want to know all that information. So, again, that would help with that, consulting with your veterinarian. But also checking on some of the shows because there’s getting to be more and more requirements. (Dan) Yep. And if you’re going there, they’re not doing it to be exclusive, they’re doing it to protect your horse. And they’re doing it to protect the horses within your region, because if you go up there and pick something up, the next thing you know, you’ve brought that home. (Chris) Yea, and I think that’s something that we’re starting to see more and more, is especially even like the neurologic herpes is kind of the biggest thing that’s out in the news right now. And we don’t necessarily have a vaccine for it, but there are some things we can do, requirements, and those things to try and prevent some of those wildfires from getting started at the shows. (Dan) We talked a little bit about giving vaccines prior to the mosquito season, Spring…January’s not Spring…right? (Chris) Well, it’s not Spring here in Kansas, but you know is there a possibility that it could warm up further in the southern United States and maybe they start their Spring shots in February, early March. But that’s something too. You have to consult with your veterinarian. See when the best time to start those vaccines and go from there. (Dan) Great. Thanks for being on the show. (Chris) Thank you. (Dan) And thank you for watching DocTalk. If you want to know more about what we do, you can find us on the web at www.doctalktv.com. Remember to always work with your local veterinarian. Thanks for watching DocTalk today. I’m Dr. Dan Thomson and I’ll see you down the road.

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