July 20, 2015

(Dan) Hey folks, welcome to Doc Talk, glad you joined us today, we’re gonna have a great show on parasitology with Dr. Gregg Hanzlicek, here from Kansas State University’s Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. We’re glad you joined us and hope you enjoy the show.

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(Dan) Gregg, welcome to the show. (Gregg) Glad to be here. (Dan) Folks this is Dr. Gregg Hanzlicek. He is a veterinarian and he is with the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory here at Kansas State University. Does a lot with field investigations. You do a lot of work… he has a lot of experience as a bovine practitioner and we’re lucky to have him here at Kansas State University serving our state and beyond the boundaries of the state. Thanks for being here. (Gregg) My pleasure. (Dan) So, we’re gonna talk about parasites. And there’s all kinds of them, right? (Gregg) Lots of parasites, yep. (Dan) Externals, internals, different types of internals, but let’s start by talking about the ones that are buzzing around out there around our head in the summer. (Gregg) The flies. Right now we’re getting into fly season and if you drive around the country you’ll see the cows are now starting to be irritated by the horn flies and the face flies and yep, it’s an important topic. (Dan) Yep and some of the things that… you’re exactly right. We see the cattle bunching up and swishing and of course, we’re gonna have some issues that follow with the flies. But what are some of the things, or concerns, that we have with the flies with cattle? (Gregg) Well it depends on what type of fly we’re talking about. We talk about face flies, they’re flies that just, they spend a very small amount of time on the animals, they feed on the eye juices, the nose juices. The thing we worry most about them is pinkeye. They transmit the bacteria from animal to animal. Talk about horn flies-horn flies are actually the ones on the back. You know that. But I don’t know why we name ’em horn flies cause they’re not on the horns. But they’re blood suckers and they feed 20 to 30 times a day and if you go out there and especially if you look at those bulls, they have thousands upon thousands of flies on ’em. And they’re irritants. So they keep the cows and the bulls and the calves from grazing or nursing, from producing milk and doing those kind of things. (Dan) Cool. And so obviously, we have different types of disease and everybody associates the pinkeye and vector borne type diseases. What are some of the things that people are doing these days, out there to kind of help with the flies? What are some management practices that we can enlist or use? (Gregg) That’s a great question. Number one are fly tags. (Dan) Yep. (Gregg) Use the insecticide fly tags. Of all the things that we can use, it probably is the most effective. And I say that because we really don’t have control over the face flies because they don’t spend enough time on the animal. If we use pour-ons or back rubs or any of those kind of things, those flies come and go so they don’t have much experience or access to the insecticide but the fly tag helps with those. But the fly tag also helps with the horn flies and the other flies we’re concerned with. (Dan) Yep. And then I’m assuming that there’s some things we can do environmentally-knocking down weeds and cleaning up old bale rings and things to that nature as well.(Gregg) There is, because the face flies and the stable flies, they don’t spend any time on the animal. They live in old vegetation and rotten feed and those kind of things, so cleaning up those areas will reduce the area where they can lay their eggs. So, that’s a good fly control program for environmental. (Dan) Cool. Well, we’re gonna take a break. When we come back. we’re gonna talk more with Dr. Hanzlicek on parasites and we’ll move from outside the cow to inside the cow. You’re watching Doc Talk, and we’re sure glad you joined us.

(Dan) Folks, welcome back to Doc Talk. Dr. Dan Thomson, Dr. Gregg Hanzlicek. And Dr. Hanzlicek is with the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory where you do a lot of different things, wears a lot of different hats, but is always out in the field and always working with practitioners and producers and where the rubber meets the road. And Gregg when we talk parasites, we move from outside to inside the animal, let’s talk about some of the internals and what are some of the different species that we should be most concerned with when it comes to cattle? (Gregg) That’s a great question. Cattle have lots of different species of worms. The main one we’re concerned with is one called ostertagia, and it lives in the stomach, causes certain things like nutrient malnutrition, suppresses immunity, those kind of things. Some of the other worms we’re mainly concerned about the caperias, they live in the small intestine. We know that they have an affect on the gain of calves that are in pasture. Haemonchus is another one that’s not so much in this area, mainly in the southeast, worm. Those are the three main ones that we’re actually concerned about today. (Dan) OK. And so when we’re looking at those types of worms and again, they’re all going to affect performance or conception rates, or body condition score and things to that nature. What are some of your recommendations? And of course we always recommend work with your local practitioner because they’re the ones that are living there and know the cattle and the climate. But what are some of the things, just some general concepts on parasite control? (Gregg) Some of the major things to think about is that just like you said, most of the effects are things that you don’t probably recognize. Most of the problems we have with internal parasites are subclinical, we can’t see ’em. (Dan) Right. (Gregg) Unless we actually measure ’em. The other thing about internal parasites that is becoming a controversial subject as far as how we should manage them in the cow/calf operation, but a part of that is that we have to remember that 90 percent of the worms that these cows and calves have access to are actually in the pasture. Only 10 percent of them are actually in the animals. And so the pasture, how we control the environment and maintaining the environment is very, very important in this disease. (Dan) Cool. You know, we have a lot of different products out there, we’ve got injectables, we’ve got the ivermectins, the avermectins, we’ve got drenches, the fenbendazoles, and we’ve got pour-ons too. Any preferences or any thoughts on that, or use one. (Gregg) Well, there’s two thoughts. One is that we do know, literature shows and research shows, that with the avermectins, that compound we are starting to see some resistance in the worms. But if you look at other countries that use the other products also, we’re seeing resistance to basically all those products. (Dan) OK. (Gregg) I don’t know if I want to go into that. For me it’s pretty simple. And this is getting to be where veterinarians are looked down upon, but for me it’s pretty simple, you deworm the adults when you go to pasture to keep the pasture contamination down. (Dan) Yep. (Gregg) And you deworm everybody when you come off pasture. But there’s people that are really thinking or saying veterinarians are a doing a disservice, we’re still promoting that. So, they want us to do things like don’t treat anybody until you go 30 days into the pasture because then you’re going to build up those worms except… I didn’t know which one. (Dan) Let’s stay with your way, let’s stay with your way. (Gregg) Alright cool, I’m comfortable with that. (Dan) So, we have about, we were at 3:12. And then the second point would be. (Gregg) Well, a really good recommendation for producers is let’s deworm the adult animals when they go to pasture, that way we’re reducing pasture contamination. The calves are going to pick up the worms in the pasture, and let’s deworm everybody when we come off the pasture. Let’s clean ’em up. So, we’re doing two things-we’re making sure the pasture doesn’t have a high load of parasites, but we know animals are going to pick up those parasites, let’s clean ’em up when we get off the pasture. It’s a pretty simple program. (Dan) Yep, and it sounds like great advice, to clean the environment and then clean up the cattle as we come off. (Gregg) Absolutely. (Dan) We’re gonna take a break. When we come back, we’ll talk a little bit about coccidiosis. You’re watching Doc Talk and we’re glad you joined us.

(Dan) Folks, welcome back to Doc Talk. Dr. Dan Thomson, with Dr. Gregg Hanzlicek. And he’s with the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Kansas State University and Gregg we’re talking about parasites. And one of them I know that you’ve done quite a bit of work with and looked at is coccidiosis. (Gregg) Yes. (Dan) And a lot of times we don’t consider coccidiosis a parasite out in the country. We think of it more as a bacteria, or something we’re gonna treat for, or that because we do treat differently than what we do for our internal parasites. And really this is a parasite. (Gregg) It is a parasite, and it is closer related to the cryptos and some of those other things. It is an internal, small intestine parasite. (Dan) OK. And what are some of the… I think one of the things that producers don’t understand is how common it is. (Gregg) It’s actually probably the most common disease other than bovine respiratory disease that we deal with calves that are around weaning, just before or just after weaning, on the cow/calf side. (Dan) And there can be subacute, kind of a nonclinical carriage of these. (Gregg) Absolutely. Just like the other internal parasites, what you see is only a very small percentage of what’s actually going on in the rest of the animals. (Dan) Right. So, not only do we have the opportunity of having clinical disease from this parasite, but we can have the subclinical which is causing us lost performance, lost conversion of that grass, or that cow’s milk, or feed when they get into the grow yard. (Gregg) That’s exactly right. And with coccidia, it causes severe malnutrition if the numbers of those organisms are severe enough in the intestine, those calves are eating what they should, but they’re not absorbing those nutrients, and so we’ve got a malnutrition, which has a huge impact on their immunity. So that’s why we know that calves that have a heavy coccidia burden are more susceptible to other diseases like bovine respiratory disease, maybe pinkeye, those other kind of diseases, so it’s important. (Dan) OK, so how are some ways that we can prevent or treat for coccidia on these calves that are at different stages. (Gregg) Well, that’s a great question. One thing to remember is that every facility has coccidia. It’s a normal inhabitant of all bovines. And so animals have it, they’re passing it through the manure. So, one of the best ways to really prevent a really severe coccidia outbreak, is to concentrate on manure build up. (Dan) OK. (Gregg) The other thing is standing water. When we have standing water, where an animal with coccidiosis will defecate in the water, now all that cocci is in the water. What do animals like to do, they like to drink out of those, now we’re inoculating the whole population to large doses of coccidia. (Dan) Yea, I used to get into some of those cocci outbreaks on cattle when we’d get into that freeze/thaw cycle, where it’d be warm during the day and thaw out and freeze at night, and with cattle they’d drink ground water and… (Gregg) Absolutely. (Dan) … really have some tough times those times of the year. Any compounds or anything if I do get in to a cocci wreck that you recommend or think about? (Gregg) There are some good products on the market and we’re talking mainly products that you’d have to feed in a bunk, so probably post weaning kind of thing. But CORID amprolium. (Dan) Yep. (Gregg) That’s a product that’s really effective, not only for treatment but also for prevention. So, those are- they come in a pellet, can get ’em in a liquid to put ’em in the water, or feed ’em in a pellet, very effective products. (Dan) Perfect. Folks, we’re gonna take a break. When we come back, more with Dr. Hanzlicek on parasites. You’re watching Doc Talk Thanks for joining us.

(Dan) Folks, welcome back to Doc Talk. Dr. Dan Thomson with Dr. Gregg Hanzlicek. We’re at Kansas State University where Gregg works at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, works with field investigation, he directs our outreach programs and much more. And we’re fortunate to have him here on the show and we’ve had a great show talking about parasites. And one of the things that you and I talked about during the break was, talking about some of the things that have to do with resistance and really what I’m talking about is with the flies. (Gregg) Absolutely. We talked about earlier about how fly tags are probably the most used product for control of flies. They are effective, but there’s certain things that we need to keep in mind if we’re using that product for fly control. And one is resistance. We know that if we use the same chemical product year after year we’re gonna breed flies that become resistant to that insecticide. So, if people are using pyrethroids and organophosphate tags which most are, it’s important that they use two years of pyrethroids, the third year they use an organophosphate and then they go back to pyrethroids for two years. That rotation will reduce the opportunity for resistance. (Dan) That makes a lot of sense. And you know, when we have cows and perennial animals on the farm, important to get things removed? (Gregg) Absolutely. And that’s the other important thing is that fly tags are great and when we put ’em in there’s a lot of insecticide there. But through time, that amount of insecticide is going to be reduced. And so, if we’re not taking those insecticides out in the fall and getting rid of them, what we’re doing is we’re exposing flies to very, very small amounts of insecticide. So the only flies we’re killing are those that are the most susceptible to that insecticide and we’re breeding those that are resistant. (Dan) And it makes a lot of sense that we got the cows caught before we go to pasture, deworm ’em, put the fly tags in, bring the cows out in the fall, we’re gonna preg check, just have somebody up there cutting tags out. (Gregg) Absolutely, that’s a simple program that does work. (Dan) You bet. I know you do a lot of work at the D Lab and I’m kind of putting you on the spot, but what’s your philosophy of just producers working with their practitioner? (Gregg) Of course I’m a practitioner, or consider myself to be a practitioner. But I was a producer once in my life too. But that interaction between producers and their local veterinarian is really key to not only producers thriving during the good times like it is now for cow/calf operators, but really surviving during the hard times. Which, there’s a lot of hard times. That relationship, those producers relying on their veterinarian to provide them with the latest information on prevention and treatment and management of their herd is really vital to everybody. (Dan) You bet. Well, I know one thing is that you are a practitioner first and foremost and what you do and how you work for the practitioners of the state and beyond is much appreciated. (Gregg) I appreciate that. Thank you. (Dan) Folks, Dr. Gregg Hanzlicek. Thanks for joining us today on Doc Talk. If you want to know what we do here at the vet school you can find us on the web at www.vet.ksu.edu. And remember to always work with your local practitioner. I’m Dr. Dan Thomson, thanks for watching Doc Talk today. And I’ll see you down the road.

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